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Gerber Format for PCB: Process & Software 2023

Views: 441 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2023-04-10 Origin: Site

Gerber is a 2D binary format that transfers data from PCB design software to production equipment. This format is well-known among PCB manufacturers worldwide. There is no way to overstate the importance of the Gerber format in assuring the successful and efficient production of printed circuit boards (PCBs).

A Concise Introduction to Gerber

The Gerber format was developed in the 1960s when the electronic industry began. It was created to transmit data from a computerized printed circuit board design to a photo plotter, which would then construct the required photomasks for the assembly process. To keep up with the accelerated development of technology, the Gerber format has undergone several updates and enhancements since then.

Recognizing Gerber Files

Different file types within the Gerber format suit various purposes. This collection includes aperture, drill, copper, and silk screen files. These documents are consolidated into one exhaustive set of factory machinery guidelines.

Creation of Gerber Files

 Gerber format

Several phases are involved in generating Gerber files, including establishing design guidelines, creating the design, and exporting the files. A variety of applications can generate Gerber files, each with its own set of features and capabilities.

Design factors for Gerber format:

Several considerations must be made when designing PCBs in Gerber format. Consider aperture size and shape, minimum feature size, and the design criteria for the Gerber format. The PCBs produced will not be up to par if these factors are disregarded.

Advantages of Using the Gerber Format:

The Gerber format has many advantages, such as its compatibility with various PCB design tools, simplicity, precision, and accuracy. Both designers and manufacturers prefer it on account of these qualities.

Despite its advantages, the Gerber format has drawbacks, such as a flattened data structure and a lack of support for 3D visualization. New file formats have been developed in response to the problems caused by these restrictions.

Gerber format plays a significant function in producing printed circuit boards (PCBs). From the copper layer's etching to the silk screen's application, manufacturing equipment is given precise instructions via Gerber files. To produce high-quality printed circuit boards (PCBs), Gerber files must be precise.

The process of assembling printed circuit boards (PCBs) significantly relies on the Gerber format. It generates "pick-and-place" files, which the assembly equipment reads to determine where to position the parts. While transitioning from Gerber files to pick-and-place files, several obstacles must be carefully considered.

Regarding quality assurance, the importance of the Gerber format must be balanced. Gerber files are extensively used in PCB inspection, which must be accurate to ensure that the final product meets standards. Verification of Gerber files is a crucial aspect of quality control.

In which way gerber format is important?

The Gerber format is equally helpful for repairing and maintaining PCBs. They provide precise information regarding the board layout and component placement to locate and repair malfunctions. Gerber files are created utilizing the Gerber format.

 gerber format

Knowledge of PCB layout and fabrication is required to generate Gerber files. The designer must consider the rules governing the design of the circuit board, including the minimal feature size, aperture size, shape, and other performance-affecting parameters.

Software for gerber format

Designers use specialized software to export data from their CAD systems as Gerber files. The PCB design software suite typically comprises these tools, which can output various Gerber file types depending on the project's requirements.

There are a variety of steps involved in creating a Gerber file. The initial stage is for the designer to ensure their work is exhaustive and error-free. Save the design as a Gerber file as the next step. The design data is converted into a set of coordinates and aperture definitions, which the software application saves as a Gerber file.

The designer must double-check the Gerber file for errors after creation. This includes searching for improper board dimensions or missing drill information in the file. The designer can use specialized software applications to verify the Gerber file's precision and conformance to the design specifications.

Tools for generating Gerber files

The procedure of creating a Gerber file can be carried out with a variety of programs. These applications span a broad spectrum of complexity, from simple file converters to comprehensive PCB design environments. Altium Designer, Eagle PCB Design, and KiCAD are the three most popular programs for generating Gerber files.

Among the numerous features that make Altium Designer so popular among PCB designers is the capacity to generate Gerber files with ease. Designers can generate Gerber files quickly due to the software's user-friendly interface. In addition, it has innovative features such as 3D board visualization and real-time design rule validation.

Eagle PCB Design is a widely used program for generating Gerber files. The software's intuitive user interface allows designers to generate Gerber files quickly. In addition, it possesses sophisticated features such as schematic capture, auto-routing, and design rule verification.

KiCAD is an open-source program that allows the user to generate Gerber files at no cost. The software offers many design tools, such as the capacity to capture schematics, arrange PCBs, and view the results in three dimensions. KiCAD is adaptable enough to meet the needs of various design projects.

Aspects of the Gerber Format Design

Designing in the Gerber format necessitates an understanding of the format's limitations and opportunities. To ensure that Gerber files faithfully reflect the design intent, designers must consider minimum feature size, aperture size and shape, and other design rules.

Formatting specifications for Gerber

The Gerber format's design standards outline the minimal feature size, minimum feature spacing, and other board performance-affecting factors. It is crucial that the Gerber files accurately reflect the design intent to produce a high-quality PCB.

A feature's smallest dimension

Minimal feature size is the minor feature that can be produced reliably on the PCB. This is determined by the PCB's method of production and the capabilities of the equipment used to create it. To ensure the circuit board can be manufactured reliably, designers must ensure that the minimum feature size is large enough.

The aperture's dimensions and shape

The aperture's dimensions and shape substantially impact the reliability of the printed circuit board (PCB) assembly. When working with the Gerber format, designers must carefully consider the aperture size and shape to manufacture the circuit board with high accuracy and precision.

Benefits of Using Gerber Format

Gerber has several advantages over other file formats used for PCB design. High accuracy and precision, easy readability, and compatibility with a wide range of PCB design tools are just a few of the advantages.

The Following Stage for Gerber Files

The Gerber format has a long history in the PCB industry, yet it is still the most widely used file format. Nevertheless, efforts are being made to enhance the format and address deficiencies.

Modifications to the Gerber file format

The primary objective of Gerber format technology is to enhance the precision and accuracy of the files. Implementing additional features, such as support for curved boundaries and dynamic text, contributes to the resolution and accuracy of the files.

New data transfer methods constitute a second area of expansion. Using application programming interfaces (APIs) and cloud-based solutions illustrates this trend.

Compelling alternatives to Gerber

Despite the widespread adoption of the Gerber format, other alternatives are gaining traction. Open JSON for PCB (OJPCB) is an example of an open-source format designed to resolve some of the shortcomings of the more prevalent Gerber format. With the assistance of OJPCB, more intricate designs, 3D visualization, and enhanced precision are all feasible.


With the Gerber format, PCB fabrication is possible. It remains the preferred file format for all PCB design tools due to its lengthy history, interpretability, and high accuracy and precision. There are ongoing efforts to improve the format and resolve its limitations, such as technological advancements and the development of potential substitutes.

 As PCBs become more complex and intricate, it is anticipated that the Gerber format will evolve and adapt to meet industry demands.

About The Author

I am the Engineering and Sales supervisor working in Victorypcb from 2015. During the past years, I have been reponsible for all oversea exhibitions like USA(IPC Apex Expo), Europe(Munich Electronica) and Japan(Nepcon) etc. Our factory founded in 2005, now have 1521 clients all over the world and occupied very good reputation among them.


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